Monthly Archives: October 2013

How Much Water Do You Drink Per Day?

ID-100166700The earth is covered by 70% water and the human body is made up of 50-75% water. The human brain is made up of 95% water, the blood 90%, and lungs around 70%. Just like planet Earth, our bodies would not survive without water. Water is a necessity. Hydration is vital for the human body to perform properly. The standard recommendation is to drink  at least eight 8 ounces glasses of water a day.

Some of the benefits of keeping the body hydrated are:

1) Water adds bulk to stool and fluid to the colon and prevents constipation.

2) Detoxification is aided by water. Drinking water naturally helps remove toxins that build up in our lymphatic system, kidneys, and intestinal tract.

3) Blood is made up of 80 percent water and bones 50 percent water. To assure that you are creating new blood and bone cells it is important to hydrate.

4) Water helps lubricate your joints and protect against wear and tear

5) The brain is made up of 85 percent water and staying hydrated can help prevent headaches, improve concentration, decrease irritability, and improve fatigue level.

6) The elasticity of the skin improves with the consumption of water. It can help keep you looking younger by moisturizing your skin.

7) Research has shown that mild dehydration has been associated with feelings of depression, anger, and confusion.

In order to insure that you are successful in drinking enough water throughout the day here are ways you may want to consider some of the following.

You may want flavor your water by adding a slice of lemon, lime, cucumber, or orange. It’s a natural way of enhancing the taste which can make you more prone to drink more without adding calories.

Eating more fruits and vegetables which contain a high water content and will help keep you hydrated. Some of the fruits and vegetables are watermelon, strawberries, cantaloupe, grapefruit, lettuce, spinach, zucchini, cabbage, and peppers.

You can develop a reminder on your cell phone or PC to alert you when or how many glasses of water you should have had in a day.

Instead of soda you may want to drink something healthier,  try seltzer water with a splash of 100% natural juices.

Try to keep a large bottle or glass by you at all times.

When exercising it is important to hydrate, but the amount varies with the the type of activity and in what climate you are exercising.

Water is necessary in order for our bodies to work efficiently and  helps us be more energetic.

A healthier body means a happier life, so go to your nearest water cooler and pour yourself 8 ounce glass of water, remember that the daily amount recommended by the medical profession is 64 ounces of water per day for best results.


Written by Rita Zimmerman, LPTA/CLT
Photo courtesy of artzenter/

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)

ID-100188360What is PRP?

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has gained in popularity and usage in recent years and more research has been done on how helpful this treatment may be. When an injury happens in the body, platelets rush to that area to heal the injury. These cells contain many enzymes which play an important role in healing. PRP involves taking a sample of blood and separating out the platelets. Then, your doctor injects the platelets into the tendon or joint. These cells restart the body’s normal inflammatory healing process in the area of injury.


Does it work?

Currently, research shows PRP may be beneficial for musculoskeletal injuries. These may include issues at the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Most of the PRP research is on tendon injuries, but there have also been studies showing PRP may be beneficial in osteoarthritis as well. The studies show that PRP is a safe procedure with a low risk of adverse events. Since it’s your own cells, the risks are minimal. However, there are always risks and side effects with every procedure and you should talk with your doctor about these before considering PRP.


What does the procedure involve?

A PRP injection starts with a visit to your Preferred Orthopedics of the Palm Beaches doctor to discuss your area of pain and treatment options. PRP may or may not be recommended for you.  If you and your doctor decide to continue with PRP you will schedule a separate appointment. You will have blood drawn, which will then be placed in a machine and the platelets removed. Your area of pain will be injected with the platelets, sometimes using an ultrasound machine for guidance. The injection usually causes some discomfort. After the injection, you may be asked to immobilize the area and then to undergo a physical therapy protocol. This will depend on where you had the injection and your treatment plan with your doctor.


Written by Kathleen L. Davenport, MD



Photo courtesy of dream designs/

Walk to Sustain Your Health

ID-100195643A large portion of patients, that when asked what physical activity they do daily, say they are sedentary. Some are sedentary because of painful joints, others because of previous injuries, and a handful because they have never been involved in physical exercise.  Walking can be a serious solution without being overly time consuming or being stressful to the body and cardiovascular system. Like all aerobic activity, walking tunes up the heart and lungs while burning calories.

It is recommended that you elevate your heart rate up to 150 minutes per week to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The problem is how you go from 0 minutes of exercise each week to 2.5 hours? Harvard has published a good suggestion that I often revert to when trying to educate my patients. For those that don’t exercise at all, the table below are instructions how to slowly ramp your activity to 2.5 hours per week. If you are already exercising daily, start at the level that seems to match your current walking or activity level.  It is always recommended to start for several minutes with a slow warm up before trying any brisk walking activity.

Sessions Daily Brisk Walk Total Weekly
Week 1 2/week 5 minutes 10 minutes
Week 2 3/week 5 minutes 15 minutes
Week 3 4/week 5 minutes 20 minutes
Week 4 5/week 5 minutes 25 minutes
Week 5 5/week 10 minutes 50 minutes
Week 6 5/week 20 minutes 100 minutes
Week 7 5/week 25 minutes 125 minutes
Week 8 5/week 30 minutes 150 minutes

The table highlights how many minutes they suggest you should “brisk” walk. This usually is 100 steps per minute or a walking pace that would make singing tough but you are still able to talk. If you are unable to hold a conversation while walking, then this is considered strenuous exercise. Strenuous exercise is usually too aggressive to perform for 150 minutes per week for someone not used to a lot of exercise. For those of you reading this that have trouble walking due to a joint condition, there are alternatives. Try using a hand-crank bike, stationary bike, swimming or water walking. You can even use the above table for these types of activities. Stay active and keep your heart healthy. If you have any cardiac conditions, check with your cardiologist or primary care physician to see if this program is ok for you to start.


Written by Chris Athos, MPT COMT


Photo courtesy of usamedeniz/

Female Athlete Triad

The Female Athlete Triad is an important factor in sport health as well as sport ID-100182953performance. The three components of the Triad are low energy availability, decreased or absent menses, and low bone density. While the Triad is often seen in female athletes, low energy availability and low bone density can also seen in male athletes.

Low energy availability refers to the athlete’s output (calories used, often in sporting activities) being greater than her input (calories eaten). This can be due to an eating disorder, but can also be unintentional. Absent menses (“amenorrhea”) means not having a period by age 16 or missing three periods in a row. Women, who only have 4-9 periods in a year, or a cycle longer than 6 weeks, have “oligomenorrhea,” which means a low number of periods. Low bone mineral density requires a test to determine the bone density. If it is low, an athlete may be at risk for breaking a bone and possibly for not reaching her full height potential.

It is common to have only one or two elements of the triad, and an athlete does not need to have all three components to affect her sport and her health. Short term and long term health problems can happen from the Triad. Athletes can be at increased risk for breaking a bone, cardiovascular disease, and injuries to the muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These injuries have the potential to cause time loss from sports and can lead to more serious medical issues.

The most important component of treatment is modifying diet and exercise to restore balance to the athlete’s energy availability. Sometimes this may mean eating more calories and/or decreasing exercise.Treatment should be under the guidance of a physician familiar with sports medicine as sometimes further testing needs to be ordered.


Written by Dr. Kathleen L. Davenport, MD


Image courtesy of hyena reality/

Running Your First 5K

ID-100132826Running for fitness and sport continues to grow in popularity for its health and wellness benefits. For those who need motivational goals, the 5 Kilometer run is an excellent starting distance for a first time race. This distance, commonly referred to as the “5K” is equal to approximately 3.1 miles and is the most popular road running distance in the United States. During the fall, most cities host races every weekend so choosing a date can fit into anyone’s schedule.

When first getting started with running, buying the proper footwear is important to avoid injury. Purchase running specific shoes which properly fit your foot type and size. If you need advice on the proper footwear, your local running store can assist you with a gait assessment. Be sure to wear breathable clothing to avoid overheating, and hydrate with plenty of fluids. Some people prefer to run in groups so try to recruit a family member or friend when beginning a program. Most areas have running groups or clubs that have organized runs on a regular basis.

When you go out for your first training run, perform a brisk walk to warm up before starting to run. Once you do start running, be sure to take walking breaks whenever you become too fatigued to continue. Start with 15-20 minutes of run walking and progress to 30 minutes over several weeks. Eventually you will develop the fitness to continually run for 30 minutes. Once this is accomplished you should be ready for your first 5K.

On Race Day, you should not eat anything abnormal for breakfast and be sure to eat at least 90 minutes before the race to ensure proper digestion. Just before the race, be sure to warm up with a brisk walk or a light jog for several minutes. Once the gun goes off, be sure to pace yourself properly to ensure you do not fatigue prematurely, and resist the temptation to try to match the speed of faster runners. Take in fluids as needed while on the course to avoid dehydration. When you cross the finish line, raise your hands up in the air and smile for the cameras knowing you accomplished your goal.

Written by Steven Bernstein PT, OMT

Image courtesy of Sura Nualpradid/